Saturday, September 25, 2010

Lesson 4

Basic Concepts on Integrating Technology in Instruction

                There is a lingering issue on how educational technology is integrated in the teaching learning process. This is due to the fact that the mere use of the computer does not mean technology has already been integrated in instruction. For example, computer games may not relate at all to education, much less to classroom instruction.
                There is need, therefore, to provide learning on how educational technology can be applied and integrated into the teaching-learning process. For this purpose, the definition given by Pisapia (1994) is helpful:
                Integrating technology with teaching means the use of learning technologies to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills. The difference between the classrooms of exemplary users of technology and technology users is the way their classes are conducted. In the exemplary classrooms, student use computers are woven integrally into the patterns of teaching: software is a natural extension of student tools.
                Following this definition, there is NO INTEGRATIVE PROCESS if for example the teacher makes students play computer games to give them rest period during classes. Neither is there integration, if the teacher merely teaches students computer skills. In the first place, the teachers of general or special subjects are not computer technicians or computer trainors.
                If one is looking for external manifestations of technology integration into instruction, here are some:
·         There’s a change in the way classes are traditionally conducted.
·         The quality of instruction is improved to a higher level in such a way that could not have been achieved without educational technology.
·         There is planning by the teacher on the process of determining how and when technology fits into the teaching-learning process.
·         The teacher sets instructional strategies to address specific instructional issues/problems.
·         The use of technology provides the opening of opportunities to respond to these instructional issues/problems.
·         In sum, technology occupies a position (is a simple or complex way) in the instructional process.

Simple/basic integration
In these examples, there is no substantial change in the teaching-learning process from previous method. While technology helps, it does not play a pivotal role.

Ms. Cruz wants to show photos in her Social Studies class, but the pictures are small. She decides to use the computer, scan the photos for a computer projection to the class (a presentation software package)

Result: good class presentation followed by a discussion

Mr. Alonzo thinks it is tedious to do paper-and-pen match worksheets. He decides to use the computer to put the worksheets into a spreadsheet form. He then asked the students to submit their complete worksheet to him by e-mail.

Result: More active student activity

Middle level integration
There is a purposeful use of technology to support key learning areas

Geography teacher Ms. Sioson finds it difficult to motivate her students to learn about other countries. Her supervisor suggested an instructional simulation software in which students play detectives to solve mysteries related to geography. Ms. Sioson used the computer-based material, also designed worksheets and question-answer sheets to find out the students’ experience in the learning process.

Result: an exciting group learning activity

Mr. Roxas uses a computer-bases Trigonometry software, projected to the class using a projector to supplement his teacher centered class presentation.

Result: an interactive class using a software

English teacher, Ms. Santos, used computer-based activities (software) which students can go through during library time.

Result: enrichment activity; record-keeping features of software allows checking of progress of student learning.

Ms. Yu asks her students to find information on H-fever in the internet. Students are to create an information leaflet giving a family health tips on H-fever

Result: creative skills employed by students

In these examples, Technology is the central instructional tool

To dish out information on the Asean Region, Mr. Lopez assigned newsletter computer production by group

Result: increase social skills through group work; planning, creativity, computer skills

The Rizal school has a partner-school in the US. A joint Science project allows the Philippine and U.S. schools to exchange information on indigenous herbal plants in both countries. Video conferencing is held involving students on both schools.

Result: a more sophisticated Technology-supported project demonstrating global communication and socially relevant research

Lesson 10

The computer as a tutor
Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI)
The computer can be a tutor in effect relieving the teacher of many activities in his personal role as classroom tutor. It should be made clear, however, that the computer cannot totally replace the teacher since the teacher shall continue to play the major roles of information deliverer and learning environment controller. Even with the available computer and CAI software, the teacher must:
•    Insure that students have the needed knowledge and skills for any computer activity.
•    Decide the appropriate learning objectives.
•    Plan the sequential and structures activities to achieve objectives.
•    Evaluate the students’ achievement by ways of tests the specific expected outcomes.
On the other hand, the students in CAI play their own roles as learners as they:
•    Receive information.
•    Understand instructions for the computer activity.
•    Retain/keep in mind the information and rules for the computer activity.
•    Apply the knowledge and rules during the process of computer learning.
During the computer activity proper in CAI the computer, too, plays its roles as it:
•    Acts as a sort of tutor.
•    Provides a learning environment.
•    Delivers learning instruction.
•    Reinforces learning through drill-and-practice.
•    Provides feedback.
CAI Integrated with Lessons
CAI computer learning should not stop with the drill and practice activities of students. In effect, CAI works best in reinforcing learning through repetitive exercises such that students can practice basic skills or knowledge in various subject areas. Common types of drill and practice programs include vocabulary building, math facts, and basic science, and history or geography facts. In these programs, the computer presents a question or problem first and the student is asked to answer to the question or problem. Immediate feedback is given to the students answer. After a number of practice problems and at the end of exercise, the students get summary of the overall performance.
    The question is arises: when and how can teachers integrate drill and practice programs with their lessons. The following suggestion can be made:
•    Use drill and practice programs for basic skills and knowledge that require rapid or automatic response by students
•    Ensure that drill and practice activities conform to the lesson plan or curriculum
•    Limit drill and practice to 20-30 minutes to avoid boredom.
•    Use drill and practice to assist students with particular weakness in basic skills.
In integrating computer program in instruction used tutorial software associated with cognitive learning. While practice exercise or learning by doing is still the heart of each tutorial, the tutorial software should be able to:
•    Teach new content/new information to students
•    Provide comprehensive information on concepts in addition to practice exercises.
•    Can be effectively used for remediation, reviewing, or enrichment.
•    Allow the teacher to introduce follow-up questions to stimulate students learning.
•    Permit group activity for cooperative learning.
    Simulation software materials are another kind of software that is constructivist in nature these simulation software:
•    Teaches strategies and rules applied to real-life problem situations.
•    Asks students to make decision on models or scenarios.
•    Allows students to manipulate elements of a model and get the experience of the effects of their decisions.
An example of such software is SimCity in which students are allowed to artificially manage a city given an imaginary city environment. Decision-making involve such factors as budget, crime, education, transportation, energy resource, waste disposal, business/industries available.
    While relating to low-level learning objectives, instructional computer games add the elements of competition and challenge.
An example is GeoSafari which introduces adventure activities for Geography history and science. The program can be played by up to four players to form teams. Learning outcomes can be achieved along simple memorization of information, keyboarding skills, cooperation and social interaction, etc.
    These are more sophisticated than the drill and practice exercises and allow students to learn and improve on their problem solving ability. Since problem cannot be solved simply be solved simply be memorizing facts, the students have to employ higher-thinking skills such as logic, recognition, reflection and strategies-making.
The thinking things 1 is an example of a problem solving software in which the team learners must help each other by observing, comparing.
    The multimedia Encyclopedia can store a huge database with texts, images, animation, audio, and video. Students can access any desired information, search its vast contents, and even download/print relevant portion of the data for their composition or presentation. An example is the eyewitness Children’s Encyclopedia.
    Electronic books provide textual information for reading, supplemented by other types of multimedia information. These are useful for learning reading, spelling and word skills. Examples are Just Grandma and Me animated storybook which offer surprises for the young learner’s curiosity

Lesson 12

 Information Technology in Support of Student-Centered Learning

                The idea of student-centered learning is not a recent idea. In fact, as early as the 20th century, educational educators such as John Dewey argued for highly active and individualized pedagogical methods which place the students at the center of the teaching-learning process.
                In this lesson, we shall see how the teacher can expand his options to make himself more effective and relevant in the 21st millennium information age. In particular, the lesson shall respond to questions on student-centered learning approach, practical helps on designing and adapting student-learning activities shall be examined.
                In addition, suggestions shall be made on how a student-centered classroom (SCL) can be supported by information technology (IT)

The Traditional Classroom 
                It may be observed that classrooms are usually arranged with neat columns and rows of student chairs, while the teacher stands in front of the classroom or sits behind his desk. This situation is necessitated by the need to maintain classroom discipline, also to allow the teacher to control classroom activities through lecture presentation and teacher-led discussions.
                Noticeably, however, after spending so many minutes in lesson presentation and class management, students can get restless and fidgety. Often enough, the teacher has to also manage misbehavior in class as students start to talk among themselves or simply stare away in lack of attention. To prevent this situation, teacher often make students take time to work individually on worksheets can help the simulation.
                Another option is now presented and this is adopting the idea of developing students and this is the idea of developing students to be independent learners with the end  of the making them critical and creative thinkers.

The SCL classroom
                John Dewey has described traditional learning as a process in which the teacher pours information to student learners, much like pouring water from a jug into cups. This is based on the long accepted belief that the teacher must perform his role of teaching so that learning can occur. This learning approach is generally known as direct instruction, and it has worked well for obtaining many kinds of learning outcomes.
                The problem with the direct instruction approach to learning, however, is the fact that the world’s societies have began to change. Of course, this change may not be strongly felt in many countries in which the economy longer depends primarily on factory workers who do repetitive work without thinking on the job. The traditional classroom and direct instruction approach to learning conform this kind of economies.
                In contrast, individualized societies we find knowledge-based economies in which workers depend on information that can be accessed through information and communication technologies (ICTs). Desiring to gain effectiveness, efficiency and economy in administration and instruction, schools in these developed economies have also adopted the support of ICTs. Their students have now become active not passive learners, who can interact with other learners, demonstrating independence and self-awareness in the learning process.
                Generally the new school classroom environment is characterized by student individually or in groups:
·         Performing computer word process for text or graph presentations
·         Preparing power-point presentation
·         Searching for information on the internet
·         Brainstorming on ideas, problems and project plans
·         As needed, the teacher facilitating instruction, also giving individualized instruction to serve individual needs

Observably, there is a departure from traditional worksheet, read-and-answer, drill-and-practice activities. Students also no longer need to mark the tests of peers since the computer has programs for test evaluation and computerized scoring results.
                Given this new trend in teaching-and-learning, it must be pointed out, however, that traditional classroom activities – especially in the less developed countries – will continue to have a strong place in the classroom. In spite of this setback experienced in some countries, the option has now been opened for the modern teacher to shift gears to student centered learning.

Lesson 13

Cooperative Learning with the Computer
            Singapore has set the global pace for student learning with a 2:1(2 pupils with 1 computer) ratio in its master plan for IT in education. This show that even in other progressive countries, the1:1 pupil-computer ratio is still an ideal to be achieved. Reality therefore dictates that school faces the fact that each classroom, especially in public or government schools, may not be equipped with the appropriate numbers of computer.

            The creativity of the teacher will have to respond to the situation, and so cooperative learning will likely be the answer to the implementation of IT supported learning in our schools. But the situation may not be that bad since there are motivational and social benefits to cooperative learning and these can compensate for the lack of hardware that educators face.

Defining Cooperative Learning

Cooperative or collaborative learning is learning by small groups of students who work together in common learning task. It is often also called grouped learning but to be truly cooperative learning 5 elements are needed:

1.    A common goal
2.    interdependence
3.    interaction
4.    individual accountability
5.    social skills
Therefore not every group work is cooperative learning since students working on their work sheets physically sat around a table may be working together without these features of cooperative learning.
From several studies made on cooperative learning, it is manifested that cooperative learning in its true sense is advantageous since it:

(a)  encourages active learning, while motivating students
(b)  increases academic performance
(c)  promotes literacy and languages skills
(d)  Improve teacher effectiveness.
In addition, there are studies which show that cooperative learning enhances personal and social development among students of all ages, while enhancing self-esteem and improving social relations between racially and culturally different students.

Cooperative Learning and the computer
            Researches have made studies on the learning interaction between the student and the computer. The studies have great value since it has been a long standing fear that the computer may foster student learning in isolation that hinders the development of the student’s social skills.

            Now this mythical fear has been contradicted by the studies which show that when the students work with computers with groups. They cluster and interact with each other for a vice and mutual help. And given the option to work individually or in group, the students generally wish to work together in computer-based and non-computer-based activities. Reflecting on this phenomenon, psychologists think the computer fosters this positive social behavior due to the fact that it has a display monitor – just like television set – that is look upon something communal.

            Therefore researches agree that the computer is a fairly natural learning vehicle for cooperative (at times called promotive) learning.

Components of Cooperative Learning

Educators are still wary about the computer’s role in cooperative learning. Thus they pose the position the position that the use of the computers do not automatically result in cooperative learning. There therefore assign the teacher several tasks in order to ensure collaborative in learning. These are:

  • Assigning students to mixed-ability teams
  • Establishing positive interdependence
  • Teaching cooperative social skills
  • Insuring individual accountability, and
  • Helping groups process information

These are in addition to assigning a common work goal in which each member of the group will realize that their grouped will not succeed unless everyone contributes to the groups’ success. It is also important for the teacher limits learning group clusters (six is the ideal number in a group) so that there can be closer involvement in thinking and learning.

Lesson 14


Whenever people think about computers, they are most likely thinking about the computer machine such as the television-like monitor screen, the keyboard to type on, the printer which produce copies of text-and-graphics material, and the computer housing called “the box” which contains the electronic parts and circuits (the central processing unit) that receives/stores data and is naturally an attention-getter.

There are two kinds of software:

1. The system software. This is the operating system that is found or bundled inside all computer machines.
2. The applications software. This contains the system that commands the particular task or solves a particular problem.
In turn the applications software may be:
(a) a custom software that is made for specific task often by large corporations, or
(b) a commercial software packaged for personal computers that helps with a variety of task such as writing papers, calculating numbers, drawing grapghs, playing games, and such more.


Also referred to as a program, Microsoft Windows or windows for short is an operating environmental between the user and the computer operating system. Also called a shell, it is a layer that creates the way the computer should work. Windows uses a colorful graphics interface (called GUI – pronounced “gooee”) that can be seen on the computer screen or monitor whenever the computer is turned on.
The user can work with on-screen pictures (icons) and suggestions (menus) to arrive at the desired software. Windows 95 (now improved with Windows 2003 and 2007) is a software designed for Microsoft Windows. Actually, Windows is in itself a self-contained operating system which provides

User convenience – just click a file name to retrieve data or click from program to program as easy as changing channels in your TV screen.
A new look – fancy borders, smooth and streamlined text fonts.
Information center – Windows puts all communications activities (e-mail, downloads, etc. in a single screen icon); adapts/configures the computer for the Internet.
Plug and play – configures the computer with added components, such as for sounds and video.


Instructional software can be visited on the Internet or can be bought from software shops or dealers. The teacher through his school should decide on the best computer-based instructional (CBI) materials for the school resource collection. But beware since CBIs need much improvement, while web-based educational resources are either extremely good or what is complete garbage. In evaluating computer-based educational materials, the following can serve as guidelines:

• Be extremely cautious in using CBIs and “free” internet materials.
• Don’t be caught up by attractive graphics, sound, animation, pictures, video clips and music forgetting their instructional worth.
• Teachers must evaluate these resources using sound pedagogical principles.
• Among design and content elements to evaluate are: the text legibility, effective use of color schemes, attractive layout and design, and easy navigation from section-to-section (such as from game to tutorial to drill-and-practice section)
• Clarity in the explanations and illustrations of concepts and principles.
• Accuracy, coherence, logic of information
• Their being current since data/statistics continually change
• Relevance/effectiveness in attaining learning objectives
• Absence of biased materials (e.g. gender bias or racial bias)

Lesson 15

Understanding Hypermedia

Hypermedia is nothing but multimedia, but this time packaged as an educational computer software where information is presented and student activities are integrated in a virtual learning environment. Most educational IT applications are hypermedia and these include:

1. Tutorial software packages
2. Knowledge webpages
3. Simulation instructional games
4. Learning project management, and others

The presentation of information-learning activities in hypermedia is said to be sequenced in a non-linear manner, meaning that the learner may follow his path of activities thus providing an environment of learner autonomy and thinking skills.
The flight simulator used to train pilots is an example of a highly developed hypermedia program. Observe that it simulates an environment that allows student pilots to practice authentic (as is needed to be done in the real world) tasks while reducing the load of the cognitive mode of learning.

Characteristics of hypermedia applications

There are two important features that are outstanding—among other features – that characterize the hypermedia software:

1. Learner control.
This means the learner makes his own decisions on the path, flow or events of instruction.
2. Learner wide range of navigation routes.
The learner controls the sequence and pace of his path depending on his ability and motivation.

3. Variety of media.
Includes more than one media (text, graphics, audio, animation and video clip) but does not necessarily use all types of media in one presentation.

In the use of hypermedia the following instructional events will prove useful to the teacher:

1. Get the learner’s attention
2. Recall prior learning
3. Inform learners of lesson objectives
4. Introduce the software and its distinctive features
5. Guide learning, eliciting performance
6. Provide learning feedback
7. Assess performance
8. Enhance retention and learning transfer

Saturday, September 18, 2010

Lesson 16


The Internet, also simply called the Net, is the largest and far-flung
network system of all systems. Surprisingly, the Internet is not really a
network but loosely organized collection of about 25,000 network accessed by
computers on the planet. It is astonishing to know that no one owns the
Internet. It has no central headquarters, no centrally offered services, and no
comprehensive online index to tell users what information is available on the

How is everything coordinated through the Internet? This is done through a
standardize4d protocol called Transmission Control protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP). To gain access to the Internet, the computer must be with what is
called a Server which has special software that uses the Internet protocol.
Originally developed and still subsidized by the United States government, the
Internet connect not only commercial, industrial, scientific establishments but
all other sectors including education and its libraries, campuses, and computer

The great attraction of Internet is that one the sign-up fees are paid,
there are no extra charges. Electronic mail, for example, is free regardless of
the amount of use. In contrast, individuals using the Internet on their own
personal computers must pay ongoing monthly fees to whoever is their service

Getting around the Net

The vast sea of information now in the Internet, including news and
trivia, is an overwhelming to those who wish to navigate it. Everyday, the Net
user-population and the available information continue to grow, and new ways are
continuously being developed to tour the Internet.

The most attractive way to move around the Internet is called browsing.
Using a program called a browser, the user can use a mouse to point and click on
the screen icons to surf the Internet, particularly the World Wide Web (the
Web), an Internet’s subset of text, images, and sounds are linked together to
allow users to access data or information needed.

The future of the Internet seems limitless. Already its complexity has
spawned and continues to spawn Net sites including new demand for services to
business, industries, science, government, and even homes. Many experts predict
that Internet is destined to become the centerpiece of all online communications
on the planet and in some future time in the solar system using interplanetary
satellite communications stations.

A view of educational uses of the Internet

Today, even elementary school graders in progressive countries like the
United States are corresponding via e-mail with pen pals in all 50 states. They
ask probing questions like, “What is your state’s most serious problems,” or How
much does a pizza cost in your state? This educational activity prodded by their
schools are paying dividends from increasing the pupil’s interest in Geography
to a greater understanding of how people live in large cities and other places
in the United States or the world.

Educational software materials have also developed both in sophistication
and appeal. There is now a wider choice from rote arithmetic or grammar lessons
to discovery and innovation projects. But the real possibility today is
connecting with the world outside homes, classrooms, and Internet cafes. And
today schools are gearing up to take advantage of Internet access, where they
can plug into the Library of Congress, make virtual visits to famous museums in
the world, write to celebrities, and even send questions to heads of states.